Flash Kiln

Mercury SCS

Vapor Quality

Flash Kiln Technology

Paradigm Innovations holds the only North America Manufacturer's License for Flash Kiln technology. A Flash Kiln is a novel method of creating lime from limestone, including limestone spalls, creating a low cost, high quality product. These kilns offer small footprint and high efficiency. Unlike other kiln technology, Flash Kilns allow for smaller scale lime production with flexible placement.

How It Works

Flash Kilns use air to move limestone quickly through the kiln. This creates more even heating and higher quality product. Exhaust gases and got solids are passed through a heat exchanger system to recover heat and boost efficiency. With heat recovery, Flash Kilns are capable of offering state of the art efficiency and product quality. The final product is high grade fine lime.

Capital and Production

Flash Kilns are considered commercially viable for most applications when constructed in 5 or 10 ton per hour modular units. These units are capable of approximately 2:1 turndown while maintaining efficiency. From design through installation, a unit cost is comparable to other existing kiln technologies.

Mercury Sample Conditioning System

Worldwide interest in measuring mercury emissions from point sources such as coal fired power plants, waste incinerators and even crematoria began over two decades ago. However, analyzing a gas stream to determine total mercury being emitted is challenging and is broken into three primary steps.

  1. Conversion and maintenance of the mercury in elemental form,
  2. Removal of interferences from the stream that will impact the analyzer readings, and
  3. Analysis itself.

For mercury monitoring, the first two steps, also called sample conditioning, are the most challenging. All known analyzers, from gold film to atomic fluorescence, require the mercury to be in elemental form. One of the earliest methods to accomplish these steps was known as the EPA 101A method. It was replaced by another difficult wet chemistry method known as the Ontario Hydro method. These methods were difficult and very time consuming, especially since they are made to measure down to the parts per trillion level of mercury. The market desired a simpler way to get the same end result; complete conversion of the sample's mercury forms to elemental mercury. As a work around method, some use collection traps that capture all forms of mercury for laboratory conversion and analysis. While effective, mercury trap methods, whether gold or other types, are still very labor intensive and costly. What was and is truly desired is a high accuracy continuous method utilizing dry chemistry that does not require frequent reagent additions.

Paradigm Innovations by R2 (PiR2) has a system that fulfils that goal. It was developed through several NSF and EPA Small Business Innovation Research grants awarded to Senova Corporation. When Senova was bought out by the State of Arizona, the inventor, an owner of was able to secure the rights to his invention. With patent pending and no comparable conditioning system in the patent field, PiR2 desires to market this technology to companies that could realize substantial gain from this sample conditioning system as part of an overall continuous emission monitor in their technology portfolio. We believe that companies that are active in mercury abatement or scrubber systems would realize advantages to having a mercury CEM technology to allow real-time control of abatement systems; thus allowing their customers to more completely optimize abatement chemical usage. Mercury abatement chemicals will be one of the four primary costs to coal fired power plants soon. Customers that can more readily control the chemical additions so that abatement targets are achieved most efficiently will have a competitive advantage. There are aspects from the development of this sample conditioning system that might allow for even further abatement chemical reduction, giving the owner of this technology a marketing advantage.

Our mercury sample conditioning system (SCS) was developed for incinerator and coal fired power plant flue gas continuous emissions monitoring. Its significance stems from three areas:

  1. Our analyzer successfully converts all oxide and halogen forms of mercury to elemental form for analyses without loss of incoming elemental mercury.
  2. Our system uses completely dry reagents loaded into a reactor that only requires infrequent change out a few times per year.
  3. Our system removes analyzer interferences.

Mercury sample conditioning systems treat the incoming gas stream to convert mercury to its elemental state and otherwise modify the stream so that the analyzer is able to determine the amount of mercury present. Abatement technologies have taken the direction to oxidize the mercury for more efficient removal. To do this, halogen compounds, primarily brominated compounds, are added. As the halogen concentration increases, many current SCS's cannot successfully remove all of the halogen inhibiting low level mercury conversion as well. Unfortunately this causes two problems:

  1. Halogens interfere with many analyzers and skews the real readings and
  2. Mercury reconverts to ionic forms as it passes through the SCS so the analyzer cannot detect it. Therefore the analyzer readings are again skewed.

Our reactor has neither problem. Using known chemistry applied to a high temperature setting, our reactor breaks down every type of ionic mercury compound, even calomel. It has even been shown to be more effective in the presence of chlorine and bromine, according to initial testing performed by the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center. Once in elemental form, elemental mercury passes to an analyzer without reversion.

Vapor Quality Metering

Quality, as applied to fluids, is the amount of a given stream that is vapor. There is no current instrument available to directly measure quality. Current instruments rely on complex measurements to derive a correlation related to quality, but these instruments also require very specific pressure conditions. Most calculations done in industry use a throttling calorimeter and Ganapathy's steam plant calculations. However, calculations are not straightforward and most industrial plants cannot do this testing routinely.

A simple, direct quality measurement is important because the power industry has no reliable way of determining the performance of low pressure turbines, whose exhaust is steam of mixed quality. Low pressure turbines are known to be destroyed by the buildup of salts and impurities from the partially condensed steam while in the later stages of the turbine. [1, 2] The salts partition from the steam into the condensation droplets at a level of 100 fold. The droplets wet the turbine blades and, as load on the turbine changes, the point in the turbine where the condensation occurs moves. This point of sub-saturation is known as the Wilson line. So as the Wilson line moves from blade to wetted blade, deposits build up on the blades. The deposits not only lower efficiency but also destroy the turbine from chemical attack. However, the loss of performance of the turbine from deposition on the blades cannot be detected effectively because currently, there are no technologies that can track the enthalpy change in the exhaust steam accurately so that deposition like this can be detected before damage can occur to the turbine. By monitoring the exhaust steam conditions, direct LP turbine performance can be measured.

The design of our meter allows it to be calibrated for fluids other than water. This can expand secondary markets to include many research applications, but in reality any process that relies on a consistent, particular amount of phase change could use this technology to their advantage. Most notably industrial chiller and boiler systems could benefit by being able to know the exact parameters of the fluids at critical points.